In Zhang v. Ghebreanenya, the Plaintiff was injured as a passenger in a taxi cab, and advanced an ICBC claim for damages for pain and suffering, loss of housekeeping capacity, out of pocket expenses, and the cost of future care. The Defendant denied liability, pleading inevitable accident, however the Court found the Defendant to be liable for the accident. The Plaintiff suffered from headaches and neck pain, however the Court found that such injuries had healed within 3-4 months of the accident. The Plaintiff’s main injuries were to his right arm and right shoulder, with symptoms persisting at the time of trial, approximately five years after the accident. Despite claims by ICBC’S lawyer to the contrary, the Court determined that the Plaintiff’s shoulder was asymptomatic before the accident. The Court would go on to award the Plaintiff $65,000.00 for pain and suffering.
 In his evidence at trial, however, Dr. Masri explained it this way. Because of the symptoms of pain caused by the effect of the accident on his pre-existing degenerative condition, Mr. Zhang’s shoulder became deconditioned and weak from lack of use. Normally, the remedy for this, once the pain subsides (as it largely has) is aggressive therapy to recondition the shoulder muscles. In Mr. Zhang’ case, however, aggressive reconditioning is not possible because of the lack of an intact rotator cuff (the degenerative process). But for the accident, he would not be in that same state of weakness. Because of his pre-existing degenerative condition, he is unable to remedy it.
 This explanation is consistent with the evidence of Dr. Kokan, and I accept it. I find that because of the accident, Mr. Zhang has been left with significant weakness and intermittent pain in his right shoulder. That a pre-existing degenerative condition contributed to this state of affairs does not interrupt the chain of causation between the accident and Mr. Zhang’s current condition: Athey v Leonati,  3 SCR 458.
 In assessing Mr. Zhang’s loss, however, I take into account that his original pre-accident condition included arthritis in the right elbow that limited the strength and range of motion in that joint. I also take into account what I consider to be a real and substantial possibility that the pre-existing rotator cuff tear would have led to symptoms of shoulder weakness and discomfort in the future in any event, albeit to a lesser extent than he now faces.
 With respect to the impact of his injuries, I observe that Mr. Zhang had retired from TCM long before this accident. The evidence of his daughter and granddaughter did not support the contention that he has been frustrated in attempting to pass on the family skill set. The evidence does indicate that he stopped driving his youngest granddaughter to school and lessons after the accident, but this coincided with his eldest granddaughter obtaining a motor vehicle. Nevertheless, I am satisfied on the whole of the evidence that the significant ongoing weakness in Mr. Zhang’s right shoulder and arm has had an impact on his ability to drive. I also find that he has been impaired in his ability to prepare food (particularly to chop vegetables), to perform at least some aspects of household cleaning, and to lift heavy objects. Socially, he goes out much less than he used to before the accident.